 ### Mathematics (Lower Elementary)

The Children’s House provides children with a strong foundation on which to build the more advanced mathematical understandings they gain in Montessori environments prepared for children over the age of six. In the Children’s House children work with a variety of concrete materials embodying mathematical concepts. When the hand and the mind work together, young children are able to absorb concepts, sometimes without the need for words. The Lower Elementary mathematics curriculum is built on the shoulders of the previous work done by children in the Children’s House. Following teachers’ introductions, students construct concepts and practice procedures using the Montessori math materials. The materials allow for repetition with variety, so concepts can be mastered, expanded, applied, and revised.

In the study of mathematics at this age children use quantities with precision. They also reason using logic and abstract patterning based on observation and imagination.  Children work with measurements, patterns, sequences and mathematical relationships, applying these concepts to practical projects.

The curriculum is organized around the following objectives:

• Acquisition of the concepts of number and quantity, including whole numbers and fractions.
• Use of numeration symbols and mathematical notation including comparing whole and fraction numbers, using the associative and distributive properties, and using a decimal point.
• Development of number theory including studies of multiples and factors.
• Using of the concept of place value to regroup, and to express numbers in expanded notation.
• Development of a vocabulary of mathematical terms, including terms and key words for operations, fractions terms, and nomenclature of plane geometric figures, angles, and types of lines.
• Operations, including addition, subtraction, multiplication and division; operations on fractions with like denominators; operations with decimal fractions.
• Memorization of math facts
• Naturalistic data collection and representation
• Mathematical problem solving
• Understanding of measurement in metric and customary units, of length, time, liquid capacity, surface area, perimeter, angles in degrees, volume, weight and temperature.
• Introduction to concepts and nomenclature of geometric shapes and solids including plane figures, triangles, lines,  angles, polygons, circles, congruence/similarity/equivalence, and solid geometric figures.